This book studies and brings out in details a comparative picture of the traditional and modern political institutions of governance in Nagaland with particular reference to the Sumi tribe. The Sumi Nagas are one of the major tribes in Nagaland. Chieftainship is hereditary among the Sumis. He is the chief administrator, dispenser of justice, guardian of law, founder and owner of the village. But with the onset of modern education and introduction of democratic Institutions and electoral politics, the power and position of the chief has changed and eroded to some extent. What is emerging today in the Sumi polity is a juxtaposition of old and new institutional ideas.