The World of Bribery and Corruption
India became independent in 1947 with the high ideals evinced in the Constitution. But a perusal of the last over forty years shows a steady decline of ethical standards in both politics and administration. To the political scene, the selfless dedication of pre-independence patriots is missing. This may be attributed to the fact that the morality of purpose of independence being over the ethical standards have fallen in the post-independence era. What was a crime earlier has become a norm. Within the vortex of speed some of our norms submerged completely. Others got eroded. But now that India has reached a firmer ground, we can stop a while and ponder. The pinnacle of this moral decadence may be seen in its crystallised form in the politics and administration in India since the eighties. In modern times, one major factor which contributes to the fall of ethical standards is ‘alienation’ of the individual. It may be viewed as essentially solitariness of the modern man who thinks for himself alone or for his immediate one’s first. Since corruption stems from the individual, the only solution of improvement lies with the individual himself, a gigantic task, almost impossible for the State to undertake. Needless to say, it must be done at the basic level i.e. family, school etc. Because in the end what is going to matter is what we imbibed as we grow and what we inculcate to others, perhaps, our progeny. The decadence of morals in the society is reflected in Government apparatus. Clearly, this is so, because men in the Government form a part of the society and have risen in the society. In turn, if there is evidence of decaying ethical standards in the society, it is mirrored in the men who run the system. It is an active democracy in which the high cost of electoral politics has been a major factor infuelling corruption in the electoral process and, subsequently, governance. Division based on region, caste and language are the other factors that have prompted corruption-, nepotism and patronage. The continuation of traditional gift-giving; the demand for valuable governmental concessions exceeding the supply; the expansion of governmental functions, the power of the bureaucracy; approached by peasants as superiors. Resistance to corruption, author concluded, depended on political authority and the strength of certain political institutions and values. India has not been free of corruption, whether in ancient times (at least as far back as the ‘Arthshastra’); the British rule or the decades following independence. Gandhiji was concerned with corruption in the provincial Congress ministries formed after the 1935 Act. Thus, India is considered as one of the most corrupt countries of the world by a survey conducted by the Transparency International. The book recommends a national agenda for corruption control : (a) reform the political process, (b) restructuring and reorientating the Government machinery, (c) empowerment of citizens, and (d) creating sustained public pressure for change. The book will be useful for the politicians, political scientists, legislators, administrators, social reformers and will serve as an exposure of the demon of corruption to the common man, who is afflicted the most, and how to fight it out to the finish.
Prof. Naunihal Singh earned the degree of M.A. (Economics), M.A. (Sociology), LL.B. (with International Law), Ph.D. (Management) and D.Litt. (International Business). He also obtained Diploma in Industrial Management from the Royal College of Science and Technology, Glasgow, UK; and another Diploma in International Trade from La Sorbonne University, Paris, France. Dr. Singh taught as Professor of Business Administration at several institutions of USA. A prolific writer, Dr. Singh has authored many outstanding books including India Betrayed; World of Terrorism; Foundation of Nationalism; International Business: A Strategy for Growth; Scientific Management of Small-Scale Industries; Managing Human Organizations, A System of Governance— Parliamentary or Presidential etc. in addition to several articles on national and international affairs published in Indian and Foreign journals of repute. Formerly Director in the Government of India and Member, Board of Governors, Engineering College, Kurukshetra University, India, Dr. Singh has represented India at the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and Far East (ECAFE) at Addis Ababa. He negotiated trade with Japan on behalf of the Government of India during Expo ’70 held in Osaka. Dr. Singh travelled widely in Europe including England, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela, Cambodia, Chile, Japan and other countries in South-East Asia and Africa. A wide spectrum person, currently Dr. Singh is a Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha).
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