Education is considered as an important factor which can play a significant role for the overall development of a country. Primary education deserves the highest priority not only on ground of social justice but also for increasing overall national productivity. It is the birth right of every child that primary education makes person capable of reading and writing and knowing the environmental scenario in which he lives. There has been significant positive impact of the access and quality of primary education on social and economic development. The primary education had been accepted as the starting point for promoting gender equality and empowering women in a society. The present study is an attempt to discuss about the primary education of Scheduled Castes in Assam.