Three decades of uncertainty and confusion from 1970s to the end of 1990s, has put the whole economy of Assam in the Libenstian’s framework of low equilibrium trap. Post 2000, when economic growth has started unfolding, challenges to economic development particularly in the rural sector manifest openly and intensely. It is against this backdrop, the implementation of MGNREGA was extremely relevant and timely in the state of Assam. MGNERGA has proved to be a game changer when it comes to rural development practice in Independent India. This book assesses the growth and progress of MGNREGA in the state of Assam and explains its impact on the envisaged outcomes of income, employment, social capital formation and distress migration. It too examines the MGNREGA processes. Its findings that, MGNREGA has been instrumental in increasing the income and employment base of the rural economy of Assam along with reduction in distress migration and improvement in social capital; implicitly brings out the long presence and continuity of severe capability deprivations of individuals and communities in the rural society of Assam. Based on such critical findings, the book offers some rational suggestions for better implementation of this rural development practice in the state of Assam.